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Bailable n Non Bailable Offences

Bailable n Non Bailable Offences

All the criminal offences committed by an accused fall under two categories i.e. Bailable and Non Bailable. 
Which offence is bailable and which one is non-bailable it is decided by the law (i.e. the Act which has defined an action as an offence). For example the Indian Penal Code has made the offence of molestation a bailable offence U/Sec. 354 IPC while not giving information of a tenant to the local police is made non bailable U/Sec. 188 IPC. Inflicting grievous injury with sharp weapon is bailable U/Sec. 324,325 IPC but mere possession of a knife is non bailable U/Sec. 25 Act.
Which offence is bailable and which one is non bailable, hence solely depends on the intention of the law and law makers. However, the approach of the law is different in both cases which is clear from the following description.

1. BAILABLE OFFENCES 

When any person accused for a bailable offence is arrested or detained without warrant by an officer in charge of a police station, or appears or is brought before a Court, and is prepared at any time while in the custody of such officer or at any stage of the proceeding before such Court to give bail, such person shall be released on bail.
In case of a bailable offence bail is a matter of right 
If such officer or Court, thinks it fit such person maybe released on a personal bond without sureties. In case of bailable offence, one has to only file the bail bonds and no application is required.

2. NON-BAILABLE OFFENCES 

In case a person is accused of a non-bailable offence it is a matter of discretion of the court to grant or refuse bail and application has to be made in court to grant bail.

1.    When a person accused of, or suspected of, the commission of any non-bailable offence is arrested or detained without warrant by an officer in charge of a police station or appears or is brought before a Court other than the High Court or Court of Session, he may be released on bail, but 

i.    such person shall not be released if there appear reasonable grounds for believing that he has been guilty of an offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life; 
ii.    such person shall not be so released if such offence is a cognizable offence and he had been previously convicted of an offence punishable with death, imprisonment for life or imprisonment for seven years or more, or he had been previously convicted on two or more occasions of a non-bailable and cognizable offence : 

Provided that the Court may direct that a person referred to in clause (i) or clause (ii) as above, be released on bail if such person is under the age of sixteen years or is a woman or is sick or infirm:
Provided further that the Court may also direct that a person referred to in clause (ii) be released on bail if it is satisfied that it is just and proper so to do for any other

special reason:

Provided also that the mere fact that an accused may be required for being identified by witnesses during investigation shall not be sufficient ground for refusing to grant bail if he is otherwise entitled to be released on bail and gives an undertaking that he shall comply with such directions as may be given by the Court. 

2.    If it appears to such officer or Court at any stage of the investigation; inquiry or trial, as the case may be, that there are not reasonable grounds for believing that the accused has committed non-bailable offence, but that there are sufficient grounds for further inquiry into his guilt, the accused shall, subject to the provision of section 446-A and pending such inquiry, be released on bail or, at the discretion of such officer or Court, on the execution by him of a bond without sureties for his appearance as hereinafter provided. 

3.    When a person accused or suspected of the commission of an offence punishable with imprisonment which may extend to seven years or more or of an offence under Chapter 6, Chapter 16 or Chapter 17 of the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860) or abetment of, or conspiracy or attempt to commit, any such offence, is released on bail under sub-section (!), the Court may impose any condition which the Court considers necessary- 

a.    in order to ensure that such person shall attend in accordance with the conditions of the bond executed under this Chapter, or 
b.    in order to ensure that such person shall not commit an offence similar to the offence of which he is accused or of the commission of which he is suspected, or 
c.    otherwise in the interests of justice. 

4.    An officer or a Court releasing any person on bail under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2), shall record in writing his or its reasons or special reasons for so doing. 

5.    Any Court, which has released a person on bail under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2), may, if it considers it necessary so to do, direct that such person be arrested and commit him to custody. 

6.    If, in any case triable by a Magistrate, the trial of a person accused of any non-bailable offence is not concluded within a period of sixty days from the first date fixed for taking evidence in the case, such person shall, if he is if custody during the whole of the said period, be released on bail to the satisfaction of the Magistrate, unless for reasons to be recorded in writing, the Magistrate otherwise directs. 

If, at any time after the conclusion of the trial of a person accused of a non-bailable offence and before judgment is delivered, the Court is of opinion that there are reasonable grounds for believing that the accused is not guilty of any such offence, it shall release the accused if he is in custody, on the execution by him of a bond without sureties for his appearance to hear judgment delivered.

APPLICATION FOR BAIL

For non-bailable offence one has to move an application setting out the grounds for the grant of bail. In case the court is convinced that bail should be granted it passes the order after hearing the arguments. At that stage one has to fill in the bail bond duly signed by the surety and to be filled through his advocate. In case the accused is before the court, he is set at liberty in the court itself and in case the accused is under detention in the jail, orders of grant of bail are sent to the concerned jail

To get oneself released on bail in bailable or non-bailable offences one has to file the bail bond The bail bond is filed by the surety who takes the responsibility for producing the accused person in the court or before the investigating agency. Any person who has the capacity, control and competence to produce the accused in case of non-appearance or to pay the amount of the surety can be accepted by the court for the purpose. 

PERSONAL BOND AND CASH SECURITY

In some cases while granting bail the court directs for personal bond as well as security in cash.

AMOUNT OF BOND

The amount of every bond executed shall be fixed with due regard to the circumstances of the case. 

CANCELLATION OF BAIL

A High Court or Court of Session may direct that any person who has been released on bail be arrested and commit him to custody on an application filed by the complainant or the prosecution.

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